The light moves at a speed of 300.000 km per second. When conceptualizing such a speed within our world, it really seems as an incredible and unbeatable speed. So much that the light may circumnavigate the earth 7 times within one second! We could travel from earth to moon in one second at such a speed. However, considering the unimaginable size of the universe, the speed of light happens to be insufficient. If we moved at light speed, we would reach to sun within 8 minutes or to our neighboring galaxy, the Andromeda within 2 million years. According to the Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, there is no speed above the speed of light. Therefore, the light speed is also the upper limit in this regard. However, at that time, many of the information that is known today were unknown by the scientists, such as the fact that the universe is “expanding”
Travel within the universe has been the biggest dream of the humanity. Is there a speed beyond the speed of light that has been a plot to many science fiction movies and documentaries? According to the scientists and experiments today, such a thing is possible. In the ongoing CERN experiments in Switzerland, the particles with atomic sizes are collided. So far, the results provided significant information regarding the formation of the universe and the speed of the light. It was found out that some particles exceeded the speed of light even if just a bit. The scientists repeated these experiments for another 15.000 times to eliminate any erroneous results; the results came up to be the same. Nevertheless, the scientists still say that the experiment may be wrong. But what if it is not wrong? Then the theory of relativity would still not be overthrown completely but would be modified significantly. The space travel, which has been envisaged by the humanity for centuries, would be possible and the humanity may push the limits of the galaxies. There are some theories today in this regard.
One of the indicators, suggesting that the faster than light speeds are within the realm of possibility, is the tachyons. The core of the theory is occupied by the virtual numbers. According to the theory of relativity, E = m.c². In this formula, E indicates the Energy, M means the mass and the c is the speed of light. Therefore, the energy varies depending on the mass and the speed of light. However, this is only the simplified form of the formula. The real deal is as follows;
According to this theory, if the speed of an object exceeds the speed of light, the square root will be negative, which renders the mass with negative value. under normal conditions, we can say that the mass cannot take a negative value. However, after the virtual numbers were accepted and adopted by the mathematics, they helped out a lot of stuff. This is not possible according to the known rules of physics but the math confirms this result. If we qualify the things that travel under light speeds as matter, we can say that the things, which travel faster than light, are the anti matter. However, the limit here is the speed of light. As the matter cannot move at the speed of sounds, then the tachyons cannot move at that speed either.
The String Theory
The string theory is one of the main physics models. This theory suggests that everything in the universe is formed out of the vibrations of the different resonances of the elements called the strings, which are indivisibly small. (10-35 meters). For the past 5 years, the scientists have been calling this theory the theory of everything. According to the scientists, if the strings are observed and understood, everything, from the smallest of the realms to the grandest of scales can be and will be explained.
The M theory
The M theory suggests that the answers of the questions of macro realms can be found in micro realms. To give a small example, a string of hair looks like a one dimensional object when looking from a distance. That means it is seen only as its length. However, for an ant or a mite, the hair has a length and even a width. This is the same in sub atomic scales. If we manage to observe the string that we have failed to do so until now, we can obtain new information about the secrets of the universe and may open portals to different dimensions.